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  • 试题题型【阅读理解 Section C】
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 Section C
 Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
  Manufacturers of products that claim to be environmentally friendly will face tighter rules on how they are advertised to consumers under changes proposed by the Federal Trade Commission.
  The commission’s revised “Green Guides” warn marketers against using labels that make broad claims, like “eco-friendly”. Marketers must qualify their claims on the product packaging and limit them to a specific benefit, such as how much of the product is recycled.
  “This is really about trying to cut through the confusion that consumers have when they are buying a product and that businesses have when they are selling a product.” said Jon Leibowitz, chairman of the commission.
  The revisions come at a time when green marketing is on the rise. According to a new study, the number of advertisements with green messages in mainstream magazines has risen since 1987, and peaked in 2008 at 10.4%. In 2009, the number dropped to 9%.
  But while the number of advertisements may have dipped, there has been a rapid spread of eco-labeling. There are both good and bad players in the eco-labeling game.
  In the last five years or so, there has been an explosion of green claims and environmental claims. It is clear that consumers don’t always know what they are getting.
  A handful of lawsuits have been filed in recent years against companies accused of using misleading environmental labels. In 2008 and 2009, class-action lawsuits(集体诉讼) were filed against SC Johnson for using “Greenlist” labels on its cleaning products. The lawsuits said that the label was misleading because it gave the impression that the products had been certified by a third party when the certification was the company’s own.
  “We are very proud of our accomplishments under the Greenlist system and we believe that we will prevail in these cases,” Christopher Beard, director of public affairs for SC Johnson, said, while acknowledging that “this has been an area that is difficult to navigate.”
  Companies have also taken it upon themselves to contest each other’s green claims.
  David Mallen, associate director of the Council of Better Business Bureau, said in the last two years the organization had seen an increase in the number of claims companies were bringing against each other for false or misleading environmental product claims.
  “About once a week, I have a client that will bring up a new certification I’ve never even heard of and I’m in this industry,” said Kevin Wilhelm, chief executive officer of Sustainable Business Consulting. “It’s kind of a Wild West, anybody can claim themselves to be green.” Mr.Wilhelm said the excess of labels made it difficult for businesses and consumers to know which labels they should pay attention to.

1.[单选题]What do the revised “Green Guides” require businesses to do?
  • A.Manufacture as many green products as possible.
  • B. Indicate whether their product are recyclable.
  • C.Specify in what way their products are green.
  • D.Attach green labels to all of their products.
  • 解题思路:本题问“绿色指南”修订版要求商家怎么做。第 2 段首句指出联邦贸易委员会警告商家不得使用诸如“生态友好的”之类表达宽泛的标签。第 2 句指出商家须具体怎么做,包括要证明其产品包装上的描述属实、明确具体的益处。C 项“具体说明其产品为何是绿色的”与原文吻合,其中 Specify 为原文中 specific 的同义表达,故选 C 项。
2.[单选题]What was SC Johnson accused of in the class-action lawsuits?
  • A.It gave consumers the impression that all its products were truly green.
  • B.It gave a third party the authority to label its products as environmentally friendly.
  • C.It misled consumers to believe that its products had been certified by a third party.
  • D.It sold cleaning products that were not included in the official “Greenlist”.
  • 解题思路:本题询问在集体诉讼案中,庄臣公司被指控的罪名是什么。第 7 段第 2 句指出,2008 到 2009 年间,庄臣公司遭到集体诉讼,被指在其清洁产品上使用“绿色清单”标签。第 3 句指出诉讼认为该标签具有误导性,原因是“会使消费者误认为该产品已通过第三方认证”。C 项“它误导消费者相信他们的产品已获得第三方认证”与原文意思一致,其中 misled 对应原文的 misleading,故 C 项为答案。
3.[单选题]What does Kevin Whihelm imply by saying “It’s kind of a Wild West” (Line 3, Para.11)?
  • A.Businesses compete to produce green products.
  • B. Each business acts its own way in green labeling.
  • C.Consumers grow wild with products labeled green.
  • D.Anything produced in the West can be labeled green.
  • 解题思路:本题询问凯文?威廉引用的 Wild West 所指的意义。第 11 段第 2 句先指出当前绿色认证的乱象犹如往昔的“西大荒”,随后指出具体乱在哪些方面:人人都可以宣称自己是环保的,与历史上美国西部拓荒时期的无政府混乱状态如出一辙,因此 B 项“每家公司在绿色标签这方面都有自己的做法”与该句表述相符,为本题答案。
4.[单选题]What does the author say about consumers facing an explosion of green claims?
  • A.They can easily see through the businesses’ tricks.
  • B. They have to spend lots of time choosing products.
  • C.They have doubt about current green certification.
  • D.They are not clear which products are truly green.
  • 解题思路:本题问作者对于消费者在面对绿色环保宣传泛滥时的表现有何看法。第 6 段首句指出在过去 5 年左右的时间里,声称绿色环保的宣传呈爆发状态。第 2 句指出消费者并不总是了解他们要购买的产品。D 项“他们并不清楚哪种产品才是真正绿色环保的”与原文相符,故为答案。
5.[单选题]How did Christopher Beard defend his company’s labeling practice?
  • A.There were no clear guidelines concerning green labeling.
  • B.His company’s products had been well received by the public.
  • C.It was in conformity to the prevailing practice in the market.
  • D.No law required the involvement of a third party in certification.
  • 解题思路:本题询问 Christopher Beard 如何为该公司的标签行为作辩解。第8段讲到 Christopher Beard 对本公司在绿色清单体系所取得的成就感到骄傲,并且相信他们能在这些“集体诉讼”案子里胜出,然而他也承认这个(绿色标签)领域很难规范、指引。由此可知,Christopher Beard 认为那时候在绿色标签事项上没有明确的指导方针,刚好对应文章开头说的如今美国联邦贸易委员会关于绿色标签的提议,因此 A 项为答案。
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  • 参考答案:C,C,B,D,A
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