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试题内容
 A) The Australian state of Victoria is investing in a program to identify new opportunities for its food and agriculture industries. As part of this initiative the government conducted extensive research to identify which attributes of a food product are most important to consumers. As income levels rise and education levels improve, consumers around the world are becoming interested in more than just the price and quality of the food they eat. Indeed, some consumers are now willing to pay extra money for food with a special nutritional or health benefit. In addition, some consumers are also choosing food based on how it was produced, including the environmental and ethical impact of production. Victoria’s Department of Primary Industries designed and researched a report that analyzes preferences for food products with “trust” attributes, specifically food safety, clean food, green food, animal welfare and ethical food production. The report also determines the relative importance of the five nominated “trust” attributes and evaluates their importance in relation to non-trust attributes, such as price and quality. 
B) “Consumers are becoming increasingly insightful when making purchasing decisions, and Victoria’s ability to demonstrate the trustworthiness of food products will be vital to maintain consumer confidence in priority export markets, ” the report says. Between February and June 2004, the DPI interviewed 280 food industry shareholders, including retailers, wholesalers, foodservice managers, importers, distributors, and representatives of government, industry bodies and non-government organizations, in 21 of Victoria’s major food markets, including France, Japan, the UK and the US. The research found, perhaps unsurprisingly, that price, quality and food safety were the most important factors for consumers, with each factor ranked as the most important by 18-22%of respondents(回答者). In fourth place, 8%of respondents felt taste flavor was the most important attribute of a food product for consumers, while 6%thought freshness was most important, and 3%thought the appearance packaging was most important. Health nutrition, brand image, and clean chemical free were each considered most important by just l-2%of interviewees. 
Food safety tops the list
C) Of the five specified “trust” factors—food safety, clean food, green food, animal welfare and ethical food production—food safety was ranked as being of high or very high importance to their organization by 95%of respondents. It is not just consumers that food safety is important to, as one Japanese wholesaler observed “It has taken a long time to build our reputation for reliability with our customers and just one accident would cause us to lose everything, especially if consumers are harmed. ”Clean food was ranked second in importance among the specified trust factors, with 90%of respondents rating clean food as being of high or very high importance to their organization. However, just 63%of respondents said clean food was of high or very high importance to consumers. The survey also found that there was regional variation in the definition of clean food—some respondents thought it should include Halal production methods, while others thought clean food should also be free of genetically modified organisms(GMOs). 
D) Ethics was ranked fairly high in importance to organizations, but was considered less important to consumers. While 82%of respondents rated ethics as being of high or very high importance to their organization, just 31%considered ethics to be of high or very high importance to consumers. Another finding was that ethics included many of the other trust factors, as a German government representative pointed out, “This issue covers a little of everything. It depends on the producer and on the way people, animals and the environment are treated. It depends on personal values. ”
Paying an extra cost for ethical foods
E) The researchers found that the importance of ethics varied according to what aspect was mentioned. The proving of claims made on product labels was considered to be of higher importance than issues such as workers’ rights, corporate responsibility and local sourcing, because it is an issue that has impact on the consumer directly. Green food was ranked relatively low in importance, with just 50%of respondents rating it as being of high or very high importance to their organization, and just 19%rating it as being of high or very high importance to consumers. 
F) Many respondents cited low consumer awareness and lack of consumer interest, and some said they believed consumers were unwilling to pay a higher price for green food products, reflecting the overall finding that higher importance is attached to factors that has impact directly on consumers. “Consumers claim to want the choice, but the category has been disappointing, leading to oversupply and price pressures for high cost producers. Price always seems to focus the Dutch minds, ” said one global retailer based in the Netherlands. There was also some variation in opinions about what exactly constitutes green food, with several respondents seeing it as synonymous with organic production. Of issues associated with green food, organic production was seen as the most important to consumers, while impact on the environment, ecosystem health, bio-diversity and environmental management practices were rated relatively low in importance. 
Gap between theory and practice
G) Animal welfare was another low-rated trust factor, with 43%of respondents rating it as being of high or very high importance to organizations, and just l5%considering it to be of high or very high importance to consumers. Again, respondents pointed to low consumer awareness, lack of consumer interest and an unwillingness to pay an extra cost for “animal friendly” products. Many respondents also said there was a gap between what consumers say and what they do when it comes to purchasing behavior related to animal welfare issues. 
H) “This is a complex issue—it is of low importance to consumers in terms of translation into action. but high in terms of a discussion topic. A gap exists between theory and practice, ” said a representative of a non-government organization in India. However, the importance of animal welfare could be raised if there was a direct impact that can be seen on the consumer, for example where handling or feeding administrations affect product quality or food safety, as an airline catering supplier in Singapore illustrated “Animal welfare is important only in that it contributes to the quality of the product. The way the animal is treated and fed is crucial to the quality of the end product. ”
New approaches
I) Overall, respondents identified that consumers are more concerned about factors that affect them directly, such as food safety. Although consumers are considered to be generally less concerned about issues such as animal welfare and environmental management practices, these issues are not insignificant as they assume much greater importance when they have the potential to affect food quality or when public concern is heightened by specific interest groups or media reports. According to Bob Cameron, Victoria’s minister for agriculture, the government’s aim in carrying out such research was to develop new approaches to improve Victoria’s access to international markets. It will be interesting to see how this information is used, and how it influences future product development.
1.[选词填空]Most respondents regarded ethics as a very important factor to their organization.
    • 解题思路:由题干中的ethnic可定位到D段,本段指出82%的人认为道德标准对一个组织来说很重要。故匹配段落为D段。
    2.[选词填空]Among all the ethical issues of food, the proving of. claims on product labels was considered to be of higher importance than issues such as workers’ rights.
      • 解题思路:由题干中workers’ rights定位至E段。该段指出, 产品标签上的声明是否属实(The proving of claims made on product labels)被认为比工人的权利、公司的责任和当地资源等问题更为重要, 故匹配段落为E段。
      3.[选词填空]As it was indicated by the respondents, green food was ranked relatively low in importance because low consumer awareness and lack of consumer interests.
        • 解题思路:由题干中green food及题意可定位至F段。该段讲到,绿色食品并不被看好,接着解释了原因,即消费者缺乏意识和兴趣。故匹配段落为F段。
        4.[选词填空]The Australian state of Victoria is putting money in a program for the purpose of finding out new opportunities for its food and agriculture industries.
          • 解题思路:由题干中The Australian state of Victoria定位至A段首句。本段讲到投资的目的是为食品和农业产业找到新的机遇,故匹配段落为A段。
          5.[选词填空]Concerning the definition of clean food, the survey found it was varied among different regions.
            • 解题思路:由题干中the definition of clean food定位至C段。该段提到,此次调查也发现,对清洁食品的定义有地区性差异,即人们对清洁食品的定义是不同的,故匹配段落为C段。
            6.[选词填空]Now some consumers are willing to pay extra money for food with a special nutritional or health benefit.
              • 解题思路:由题干中pay extra money可定位至A段。本段讲到,一些消费者现在愿意支付更多钱来购买具有特殊营养或保健作用的食品(for food with a special nutritional or health benefit),故匹配段落为A段。
              7.[选词填空]Animal welfare was a low-rated trust factor partly because consumers were reluctant to pay extra money for “animal friendly” products .
                • 解题思路:由题干中关键词Animal welfare和a low-rated trust factor可定位至G段。本段讲到,消费者不愿付更多的钱购买“动物友好型”的产品,故匹配段落为G段。
                8.[选词填空]Of issues associated with green food, consumers took organic production as the most important.
                  • 解题思路:由题干中关键短语Of issues associated with green food可定位至F段。本段明确指出,对消费者来说,与绿色食品相关的最重要问题是有机生产(organic production),故匹配段落为F段。
                  9.[选词填空]Price, quality and food safety were the most important factors for consumers according to the DPI’s research in 2004.
                    • 解题思路:由题干中the most important factors 和the DPI’s research in 2004定位至B段。该段表明价格、质量和食品安全(price, quality and food safety)仍然是影响消费者最重要的因素。故匹配段落为B段。
                    10.[选词填空]When there was a direct impact that can be seen on the consumer, the importance of animal welfare could be raised.
                      • 解题思路:由题干中the importance of animal welfare定位至H段。本段讲到,动物福利只有直接影响到消费者时, 其重要性才会提高。故匹配段落为H段。
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